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This invention relates to predictive coding system for tv alerts. An adaptive coding system according to claim 2 wherein said prediction perform for dedication of the evaluation by mentioned second evaluation means is managed in accordance with buffer reminiscence occupancy of the system. 11B exhibits one example whereby a differential vector signal produces twenty-five vectors on the x-y coordinates, in which digits in circles present the magnitudes, that's, absolutely the values of the vectors. 11A, the pattern of the the size of variable word size code illustrated in reference to the primary quadrant is applied to the remaining quadrants however not depicted for simplicity of illustration. The above patterning of the size of variable word length code is grounded on the next.

Thus, the controller 301 receives a signal consultant of the occupancy of the buffer memory 300 through a line a hundred and ten, and designates the quantizer 3, optimum prediction detector eight and code compressor 7 by way of line 111, and designates the quantizer 3, the optimum prediction detector 8, the code compressor 7 and the interpolator 302 through line 112. The interpolator 302 inserted in the line 104 to obtain the sub-sample and sub-line designation acts to interpolate thinned-out image parts for coding thereof on the basis of coded picture elements and it stands for a through-circuit when the operation is not within the sub-sample or sub-line mode. As shall be discussed later, according to this invention, no less than information representing an optimum prediction operate and data representing a prediction error obtained when the optimum prediction perform is used are transmitted. In a prediction coding system contemplating the movement, this optimum prediction https://www.vegus787.com/free-soccer-predictions-and-ideas-for-right-now-and-the-weekend/ function is equivalent to a motion vector that performs one of the best correction for the movement, that is, minimizes the prediction error. In the next description, the optimum prediction operate is outlined as a "movement vector". On the other hand, the prediction operate delivered out of the sequencer 8-5 is equipped not only to the prediction data amount generator usually designated at but additionally to a prediction perform comparator 8-8 and a vector code size generator or a motion vector code size output circuit 8-14 which may embrace a ROM. The vector code length generator delivers to the adder 8-13 a predetermined code length signal for the purpose of representing the provided prediction operate.

The output of the delay circuit 6 is equipped to the prediction signal generator 5 and optimum prediction detector 8 as the domestically decoded signal through lines 106a and 106b, respectively. The prediction sign generator 5 generates a prediction signal by utilizing the delayed local decoding sign provided through line 106a and in accordance with information signifying the optimum prediction perform equipped from the optimum prediction detector eight by way of strains 108 and 108a, and the generated signal is known as the optimum prediction signal as talked about beforehand. Determination of the optimum prediction sign is carried out in block items, and predictive coding through the use of the optimum prediction signal is carried out based on the result of the optimum prediction detection. The optimum prediction detector eight determines the optimum prediction function by use of the block-formation enter video signal supplied via line 101b and the delayed native decoding sign from the delay circuit 6 supplied through line 106b. The delay time of the delay circuit 15 is similar as that of the delay circuit 6 in the predictive coding system and is about one frame period. The delayed reproduced video signal is supplied because the supplementary image element signal to the prediction sign generator 12 by way of line 215, in order that the prediction signal necessary for the following block is generated in the prediction sign generator 12.

7 and eight are block diagrams displaying in detail the optimum prediction detector 8 of FIG. 7, the output sign from the delay circuit 6 supplied via the line 106b to the arithmetic unit 8-1 is briefly stored in a prediction sign generator memory 8-11a within the arithmetic unit 8-1. The block-formation input sign is equipped through line 101b to a serial to parallel converter 8-6, and right here four picture elements in a block, e.g. One of 4 parallel picture element outputs is supplied by way of line 108-6a to a subtractor 8-12a, shown in FIG. The position of a picture component processed by the arithmetic unit 8-1 will be called hereinafter picture element point D1 as proven in FIG. 3A. Similarly, other arithmetic models 8-2 via 8-4 are used for computing image factor points D2 via D4, and 4 arithmetic units in total are utilized in parallel for concurrent computations for one block.

More significantly, in a conference TV, the frequency of occurrence of movement vector is the utmost for a motion vector indicative of a standstill image, that is, comparable to a inter-frame prediction, and tends to lower as the norm of movement vector will increase. For this purpose, it is possible to effectively convert an enter vector into a variable size code in accordance with the pattern of variable code length as proven in FIG. 11A. Further, when the quantizing attribute of the prediction error sign is made rough, image quality degradation inherent to the inter-frame coding known as "dirty window" happens during which quantized noise stands still on the image so that as if a picture had been seen via a dirty window. On the opposite hand, within the motion compensation inter-frame coding, there arises a model new problem of degraded picture quality in which the soiled window is seen shifting. The new problem of degrading the picture quality is exceptional at a standstill portion of the tv image image particularly when the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the enter tv sign is low. The reason of occurrence of the degradation of the image high quality within the motion compensation inter-frame coding is as follows.

Preferably, the movement vector data is coded right into a variable word size code which has the minimum code length for the inter-frame prediction. Specifically, the code size of the variable word length code is minimum for the inter-frame prediction and will increase as the norm of the movement vector increases. In the past, a relatively excessive transmission velocity was assumed so that it has been thought-about that the proportion of the motion vector information is negligibly small. Consequently, it has been thought-about that an optimum prediction which minimizes the quantity of everything of data transmitted could be realized by detecting a motion vector which minimizes the quantity of knowledge representing a prediction error. However, as shall be seen from the foregoing description, as the transmission velocity decreases, in order that motion vector information occupies a proportion that can't be uncared for.

An instance of the movement vector data measured close to an precise picture image, is talked about in a Hirano et al paper entitled "Investigation concerning the Block Size in the motion compensated inter-frame Coding", lecture No. 697 presented before the overall assembly of the Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, communication section, 1980. According to this paper, the entropy of motion vector utilized as a measure of the motion vector data is about 0.1 bit/picture element where a block constituted by a plurality of picture elements has a size of 4 lines×8 image elements. This worth was obtained when the sampling frequency was eight MHz, in order that data of about zero.8M bits/sec. Accordingly, where a television signal is transmitted at a transmission velocity of 1.5M bits/sec., the motion vector info would occupy a little greater than 50% of the whole thing of data transmitted. A predictive coding techniques operates based mostly on a principle that a difference between a sign to be transmitted and a prediction signal is transmitted in order to decrease the amount of transmission information. This invention contemplates an adaptive predictive coding system wherein a plurality of prediction functions that give the prediction signals are used and an optimum one of the prediction features is used for performing a prediction coding operation.